Monday, May 25, 2020

Eating Disorder Anorexia Nervosa - 933 Words

Our bodies are naturally designed to maintain a normal body weight. Three examples of an eating disorder are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. Anorexia nervosa is a lack or loss of appetite for food; an emotional disorder characterized by an obsessive desire to lose weight by refusing to eat. Anorexia was identified and named in the 1870’s, when it appeared among affluent adolescent girls. A too-fat body image underlies anorexia. Bulimia nervosa is insatiable overeating as a medical condition, in particular. It is an emotional disorder involving distortion of body image and an obsessive desire to lose weight, in which bouts of extreme overeating followed by depression and self-induced vomiting, purging, or†¦show more content†¦Then her mom found her in the bathroom purging it all up. Therefore, they went back to the doctor. To this day, she still struggles with it, but she is a lot better now than she use to be. She still works out all the time, more than she should, but at least she is eating. She told me that as long as she eats, she is able to work out. She loves to work out; therefore, she will do anything to be able to work out. Song of Solomon 4:7 says, â€Å"My darling, everything about is beautiful, and there is nothing at all wrong with you.† I think this verse is a wonderful verse to reference. Even if a person does not have an eating disorder, they still think he or she is too fat. Society has a view to be skinny and not fat or bigger. This verse helps me to realize that God made me the way I appear for a reason. Even though I inhabit neither the smallest person on earth nor even the largest, I still struggle with the image of â€Å"I am fat† or â€Å"I need to be skinny.† It is hard in today’s world to be content with the way a person looks. Psalm 139:14 says, â€Å"I will praise you because I have been remarkably and wonderfully made. Your works are wonderful, and I know this very well.† We are to praise God because he made us. We should not put shame on ourselves or God for how we look. This is not to say that if a person is overweight that they should get down to the size they should be. God did not put food on this earth for us to have a feast with; he had foodShow MoreRelatedEating Disorder : Anorexia Nervosa1622 Words   |  7 Pages Bulimia Nervosa To be diagnosed with eating disorder, someone must meet certain criteria. The criterion for diagnosis slightly varies depending on if you are referring to people who (A) fear gaining weight, and have significant weight loss,(B) eating a huge amount of food , then use laxative to remove the binged food, (C) the use of excessive exercise and fasting in order to remove or to reduce the amount of calories consumed, and (D) distorted body image, no matter how thin they become, theyRead MoreEating Disorder : Anorexia Nervosa1658 Words   |  7 Pagesbeen affected by this disorder. The specific disorder that is being referred to in this paper, an eating disorder, is Anorexia Nervosa, the restricting type. An eating disorder â€Å"involve[s] disordered eating behaviors and maladaptive ways of controlling body weight† (Nevid, Rathus, Greene, 2014, p. 335). Another well-known eating disorder is Bulimia Nervosa which is characterized by binging and purging (Nevid, Rathus, Greene, 2014, p. 338). Bulimia is different than anorexia since victims of bulimiaRead MoreEating Disorders And Anorexia Nervosa Essay1948 Words   |  8 Pagesnotion of an â€Å"ideal† body and eating disorders, there is no consensus as to the root cause of eating disorders. The general belief is that eating disorders result from one or more biological, behavioral, and social factors including genetics, unpleasant experiences/trauma, peer pressure, teasing, and family members with eating disorders, among others. There are numerous types of eating disorders. Both women and men are affected by eating disorders each day. Eating disorders can occur from an early ageRead MoreEating Disorders : Anorexia Nervosa1493 Words   |  6 PagesIllness Paper – Anorexia Nervosa February 28, 2016 According to the Mayo Clinic (2016), eating disorders are â€Å"conditions related to persistent eating behaviors that negatively impact your health, your emotions, and your ability to function in important areas of life.† One such eating disorder is anorexia nervosa. Not to be confused with anorexia, which is simply a general loss of appetite that can be attributed to many medical ailments, anorexia nervosa is a serious eating disorder and mental illnessRead MoreEating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa1653 Words   |  7 PagesAnorexia Nervosa Anorexia Nervosa is one of several subtypes descending from feeding and eating disorders. It is a crippling life-threatening condition marked by a patient placing restriction on energy intake relative to needed energy requirements, resulting in a relentless pursuit of low body weight in the context of age, sex, development and physical health. According to American Psychiatric Publishing of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) â€Å"Anorexia Nervosa, often timesRead MoreEating Disorders And Anorexia Nervosa947 Words   |  4 PagesEating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder consist of emotions, attitudes, and behaviors surrounding weight and food issues. Up to 24 million people of all ages and genders suffer from an eating disorder in the U.S (ANAD, n.d.) bulimia nervosa as well as the other eating disorders are considered to be a female eating disorder, a disorder that only affects women which limits males to seek treatment let alone make aware to other that they suffer from bulimiaRead MoreEating Disorders : Anorexia Nervosa974 Words   |  4 PagesI have always been intrigued with eating disorders, particularly Anorexia Nervosa. When I was 18 years of age, my mother questioned whether or not I was Anorexic and she took me to the family practitioner, who then informed me that I was three pounds shy from being considered underweight. I knew I was thin, but I was really thin, but also really proud of my size. In an African American urban environment being thin was related to illness and drug abuse. I was often teased about how thin and fragileRead MoreEating Disorders : Anorexia Nervosa889 Words   |  4 PagesANAD Eating Disorder Statistics about thirty million people in America of all ages and genders suffer from one of the three main eating disorders. Many people suffer from more than one of the eating disorders. Only 1 in 10 individuals receive the treatment that is needed to recover(AND A). Often eating disorders are known to be triggered by outside factors in their life, but studies show that it is more likely to be a part of their genetics. According to Webster the definition of an â€Å"Eating Disorder†Read MoreAnorexia Nervosa- Eating Disorder1685 Words   |  7 PagesEffects of anorexia are mostly seen on the outside of the victim’s body, but do not be fooled. This detrimental eating disorder affects one’s mind just as much as it would the body. What Anorexia does to the mind is that it distorts the way one views their body. Victims of anorexia become fixated on their body image and overly critical about their flaws and weight. Even being obviously underweight, Anorexics will continuously deny that they have a problem and continue with their fatal practices.Read MoreEating Disorders : Anorexia Nervosa1462 Words   |  6 Pagessuffer from many illnesses, one in particular is eating disorders. There are many types of eating disorders, but there are three common ones that are known today, which are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. Eating disorders are not healthy, thi s type of disease can be very fatal and crucial to one s health   mentally, physically, and socially. The purpose of this report is to provide background information about eating disorders, strategies to prevent this illness from occurring

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Fall Of The House Of Usher And House Taken Over By...

Emmely Cortez Period 4 Ms. Arias/Mrs.Esnayra 9/25/17 Fear vs Reality Fear is among one of the most universal human emotions that everyone is interconnected at one point or another during their lifetime. In the gothic stories, â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher† and â€Å"House Taken Over† written by Edgar Allan Poe and Julio Cortazar respectively. Edgar Allen Poe writes about how the character Mr. Usher, who because of his mental illness and delusions, cannot come to terms with his reality. Cortazar writes about the relationship between a brother and sister who have normal everyday lives and have strange and odd nightmare that haunts them. The†¦show more content†¦In House Taken Over the characters let their imagination take over their sense of reason because they think that an entity is in the house. Another instance of the theme being portrait in the story, â€Å"They’ve taken over the back part...the first few days were painful, since we’d both left so many thing in the part that had been taken over†( Cortazar 40). This shows that they are stressing about this situation even though the characters can only assume that an entity is present. Secondly another example of the theme is, â€Å"We didn’t wait to look at one another. I took Irene’s ar and forced her to run with me to the wrought-iron door, not waiting to look back† ( Cortazar 41). This shows that the characters were rushing to get out even though they physically cannot see what is supposedly taking over. When they run away this tells us that their only focus is to show the spirit respect. To summarize both quotes they help us understand how the character s imagination takes over their sense of reality of what is actually happening. My imagination took over my sense of reason because I thought someone was outside as i was home alone but in reality it was my little sister outside knocking. It was on Friday night all of my family went to my aunt’s house around 7pm. I was doing my homework in th e living room and the only noise that was in the house my music but it was very low and i was finishing up my homework i kept hearing banging noises. At this point myShow MoreRelatedThe Life of Edgar Allan Poe1119 Words   |  5 PagesEdgar Allan Poe In one case out of a hundred a point is excessively discussed because it is obscure; in the ninety-nine remaining it is obscure because it is excessively discussed. This quote by Edgar Allan Poe describes his obscure works which have been discussed and criticized in great detail for many years to come. Some readers believe that his works are too dark and eccentric maybe even deathly. Others believe his works to be masterpieces. However, one thing that is not up for debate is theRead MoreCriticism of Poe Essays1019 Words   |  5 PagesThough Edgar Allen Poe is most famous for his short mystery stories of the macabre and poetry, he is also known as one of the foremost figures in literary criticism. Poe alienated many of his colleagues due to the unyielding standards he demanded in the building of a worthy national literature, he is now credited for being one of the most influential figures in the advancement of literary traditions not only in America but in Europe as well, leaving a n indubitable mark on the world of literatureRead MoreDestructive Transendence: an Intrepretation of Edgar Allan Poe1890 Words   |  8 Pagesthe very fabric of the physical and spiritual realms in order to return to genuine tranquility. Edgar Allan Poe, a very popular American author, believes in a unique philosophy that advocates these principles mentioned called Destructive Transcendence. Destructive Transcendence is the belief that in order to return to original unity, the physical world and the spiritual world must both be destroyed. Poe used this concept in many of his writings and its evident the influence it had on his stories dueRead MoreExamples Of Realism In The Fall Of The House Of Usher733 Words   |  3 Pages One of the spookiest experiences of Yovanys life was when he had a nightmare at the age of ten. The nightmare took place in an ancient and eerie house, where there were several frightening dentists. They captured him and secured him in a sturdy chair. After tyi ng him down to the chair, the dentists severed his arms and began to examine his teeth. Yovanny could not do anything to conquer the evil dentists and escape with his life. This scenario is related to Magical Realism because his nightmareRead MoreThe Fall Of The House Of Usher856 Words   |  4 PagesThe Fall of the House of Usher and House Taken Over In Edgar Allan Poe’s â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher† and Julio Cortazar’ â€Å"House Taken Over† the short stories represent the genre of Gothic Literature. Gothic Literature is a genre that combines fiction, horror, death, and romance. Some of these traits are seen in both of these stories through characters and settings. However, there are other traits that set them apart. To begin with, one of the major themes in both of these stories is fear. InRead MoreThe Mysterious Life of Edgar Allan Poe1660 Words   |  7 Pagesthat is short and to the point; Edgar Allan Poe is an author who can provide that. Although he had a rough life, Poe worked very hard to become the skillful author that is known today. Some people like horror stories and others like romances. Edgar Allan Poe is a widely accepted poet and author. He is known for his sullen horror stories and all of the tragedies in his life. Two of his most known stories are â€Å"The Tell-Tale Heart† and â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher.† At first, the stories seem likeRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of The Fall In The House Of Usher884 Words   |  4 Pagesgiving up his soul†(Poe 277). The short stories, The Fall in the House of Usher by Edgar Allan Poe, and The Minister’s Black Veil by Nathaniel Hawthorne explore fear in a deeper context. Fear is a very common emotion. Fear i s the result of encounters with the unknown. The Fall in the House of Usher, shows a very anxious Roderick Usher sending for a childhood friend to console him. The Minister’s Black Veil, is a story about a minister that is surrounded by hypocrisy and has taken upon himself to shieldRead More The Creation of Art and Life2275 Words   |  10 PagesLife for Edgar Allan Poe seems to help him build his literary creations of art, but contrary to that notion, Poe’s creations are what build his life. A complete mirror opposite of what has been theorized and proven. Think of this as the energy one puts out in to the world is the energy one will get back from the world. The death of loved ones, the scandals, and the brutal gossip mountains that encompass Poe’s life, help him to develop into a twisted mad man struggling to cope with no chance of gainingRead MoreFear in The Fall of the House of Usher by Edgar Allan Poe Essay794 Words   |  4 PagesFear in The Fall of the House of Usher by Edgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe used fear to attract his readers into his gothic world. Poe realized that fear intrigues as well as frightens, and sew it as a perfect motif for many of his stories, particularly The Fall of the House of Usher. Poe emphasized the mysterious, desolate, and gloomy surroundings throughout the story to set up the fear that got the reader involved. Then he extended the fear to the characters in order to reveal the importanceRead More The Creation of Art and Life2321 Words   |  10 Pages Life for Edgar Allan Poe seems to help him build his literary creations of art, but contrary to that notion, Poe’s creations are what build his life. A complete mirror opposite of what has been theorized and proven. Think of this as the energy one puts out in to the world is the energy one will get back from the world. The death of loved ones, the scandals, and the brutal gossip mountains that encompass Poe’s life, help him to develop into a twisted mad man struggling to cope. Of course, there is

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Substance Abuse And Mental Health - 2045 Words

Substance abuse and mental health issues affect millions of adolescents and adults in the United States. An estimated 24.6 million individuals aged 12 or older were current illicit drug users in 2013; including 2.2 million adolescents aged 12 to 17. In 2013, 60.1 million individuals aged 12 or older were past month binge drinkers, including 1.6 million adolescents. In Kansas, the percentage of people over the age of 18 with mental illnesses is about 18.2% which is similar to the national average (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 2014). Mental health disorders and substance abuse can have a significant impact on the health of individuals, their families and their communities. These disorders are among the top conditions that cause disability and carry a high burden of disease in the United States, resulting in significant costs to families, employers and publicly funded health systems. By 2020, mental health and substance use disorders will surpass all physical diseases as a major cause of disability worldwide (SAMHSA, 2014). In addition, drug and alcohol use can lead to chronic diabetes and heart disease. Addressing the impact of substance use alone is estimated to cost Americans more than $600 billion each year. Preventing mental health/substance use disorders and related problems in children, adolescents and young adults are critical to Americans’ behavioral and physical health. BehaviorsShow MoreRelatedMental Health And Substance Abuse805 Words   |  4 PagesDual diagnosis In mental health and substance abuse, we must understand which problem is first. When working with individuals who are experiencing substance abuse problems to counteract the effects of a mental illness will attempt to treat themselves, instead of seeking out proper medical care. Dual diagnosis is a term used to define the client who experiences a mental illness and a substance abuse problem at the same time (NAMI, 2015). Since dual diagnosis covers broad categories the illness mayRead MoreSubstance Abuse And Mental Health Disorders Essay1507 Words   |  7 PagesIn 2014, approximately 4,152 women under supervision in community corrections under the Colorado Division of Criminal Justice: 50.40% have a clinically diagnosable mental illness, greater than 60% were treated for substance abuse (Community Corrections Profile, 2014). Co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders is further complicated by a high prevalence of trauma histories in women in corrections (Lynch et al., 2012). The presence of intersecting co-occurring disorders and trauma mayRead MoreSubstance Abuse And Mental Health Problems877 Words   |  4 PagesFINAL PROJECT 2 Introduction Substance abuse and mental health problems are serious issues in our society. These problems appear to be associated, so it is necessary to look at both and how they interact (Ramchand). Substance abuse can bring about or exacerbate existing mental health problems, including suicidal ideation and attempts. Medical professionals cannot begin to resolve the issue of substance abuse related suicidal ideation or attempts unless they have an effective solutionRead MoreThe Effects Of Substance Abuse And Mental Health2223 Words   |  9 PagesWisconsin Population Health Institute: School of Medicine and Public Health named Hamilton County, Indiana (IN) as the best county in the state regarding socioeconomic status and health. The high school graduation rate is 92% compared to 87% overall in IN. The violent crime rate is 48 per 100,000 while the state rate was 329. The median household income is $88,429 compared to $46,954. Despite all the positive things about Hamilton County, health concerns and access to certain health care needs stillRead MoreMental Health And Substance Abuse Disorders2656 Words   |  11 Pagesresearchers have paid attention to behavioral health problems due to significant burden of morbidity and disability, as well as health care cost. The term behavioral health refers to a state of mental or emotional being and choices and actions that affect wellness. It encompasses both mental health and substance use, including such as depression, substance abuse or misuse, serious psychological distress, and suicide (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011). In 2012, an estimatedRead MoreHomelessness And Mental Health And Substance Abuse878 Words   |  4 Pagesdramatically, tripling in 182 cities over the court of the 1980s (Bagenstos, 2012). In addition, mental health and substance abuse is a major problem in across the country because of homelessness. According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration,20 to 25% of the homeless population in the United States suffers from some form of severe mental illness (DMHAS, 2014). Consequently, mental illnesses disrupt people’s ability to carry out key aspects of daily life, such as self-careRead MoreThe Federal Substances Abuse And Mental Health874 Words   |  4 PagesIs essential to attain and improve of the mental health in population. Because mental disorder is dependable for a high degree of burden, it is fundamental that efficient preventive and promotional actions be taken in mental health to decrease the impact of mental disorders on the residents and communities. Over all, mental health assistances focusing on the strategy prevents the illness itself to mainly treatments and recovery centers which varies primary, secondary, and tertiary and depends onRead MoreSubstance Abuse And Mental Health Association1098 Words   |  5 PagesReported heroin use in the United States is rising. Recent data suggest that almost 700,000 Americans consumed heroin last year, which represents an almost 40% increase from 2007 (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Association, 2014; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Association, 2008). An overwhelming increase in the dependence on prescription opioid analgesics over the last two decades combined with a supply heavy market of high quality-low cost heroin imported from South America may be concurrentRead MoreSubstance Abuse And Mental Health Administration3352 Words   |  14 PagesIntroduction According to the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration, tobacco use in America starts during youth and young adulthood. 88% of adults who smoke tobacco said that they began smoking or using tobacco products before the age of 18. The use of tobacco products causes many deathly body affects such as lung cancer and heart diseases. Another substance that is popular among youth is the drug called marijuana. In America, over 10% of people ages twelve to seventeen smoke marijuanaRead MoreMental Health Care And Substance Abuse Treatment1886 Words   |  8 PagesDrug addiction is a disease of the brain and a lot of times individuals who suffer with addiction also have other mental disorders. For individuals suffering with both one issue becomes very hard to treat because another issue is intertwined. Anyone who is entering a treatment program should be assessed for the co- occurrence of both substance use and a mental disorder. Research has proven that treating both (or mu ltiple) illnesses at the same time in an integrated fashion is generally the best

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Smoking Cessation Among Indigenous Cohorts â€Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Smoking Cessation Among Indigenous Cohorts? Answer: Introducation In todays world, smoking is a major public health issue that calls for greater attention and prudent intervention considering the adverse impacts it might exert upon the health status of the individuals who resort to such habits. There have been ongoing efforts to combat these bad habits across vulnerable population who might be most susceptible to face the wrath of the smoking behaviour. One such interventional approach meant for mitigation of these adverse impacts includes harm minimisation alongside other modality like that of smoking cessation. The work by Ober and Roche (1997) has laid focus on potentially utilizing the harm reduction principles in order to address the issue of smoking among Indigenous Australian population of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, more frequently prevalent than non-indigenous population. Thus, the opinion piece has clearly referred to the studied population thereby striving to address the clearly focused question in course of its proceedings. The authors Ober and Roche (1997) in order to address their research questions have looked for a plethora of papers that attended to similar causes and issues. Most of the papers that the authors reviewed were opinion pieces whereby the respective authors have highlighted on issues regarding addictive behaviors like that of alcoholism, smoking and drug abuse. Very few papers have been chosen that were in line with the topic of harm minimization in case of smokers exclusively. Moreover, there were no specific study designs for most of the journal articles that were being referred to in the chosen article. A small-scale literature review of articles on the chosen topic will be conducted in order to locate similar articles that are of particular significance in relation with the issue that is being considered for appraisal. An appropriate critical appraisal tool such as that of CASP (Critical Appraisal Skills Program) tool will adopted to consider effectiveness and rigor to aid in comparison of quality of evidence between studies. Efforts will be directed to identify whether the findings of these articles validate or refute the recommendations of the provided articles. Google Scholar database will be utilized in order to gain understanding of the topic with search terms like that of smoking and Indigenous cohorts and harm minimization principles of smoking in Indigenous cohorts. Similar and or associated studies will be referred to for accumulating pertinent data in liaison with the topic so that greater insight may be gained for generating better understanding. Study by McRobbie et al. (2012) revealed that smoking an electronic cigarette (EC) containing nicotine increased the chances of smoking cessation in long-term in contrast to EC without nicotine. Thus, effectiveness of ECs in long-term smoking cessation has been observed. Jha and Peto (2014) presented statistical records describing the global impacts associated with smoking behavior, of quitting and in relation to taxing tobacco. Tobacco-attributed mortality as seen through national trends in UK, US and Poland has been depicted as well that further necessitated the utility of harnessing harm minimization strategies to combat the smoking adversities. Longer the smoking duration, shorter life expectancy was noted in the smoker individuals. Taylor, Ussher and Faulkner (2007) focused on recommending specific doses of exercise to manage the cigarette craving and withdrawal symptoms. Behavioral regulation in mitigation of smoking harm has thus been suggested. In another study by Gorber et a l. (2009) emphasis has been laid on acquiring specific data related to accurate estimation of smoking status to drive suitable interventional strategies. Further, Fagerstrm and Bridgman (2014) stated that smoking related health hazards and mortality rates might be mitigated through adoption of harm minimization techniques like that of implementation of licensed medicinal nicotine products through promotion of public health awareness. Reviewing the content of the work presented by Ober and Roche (1997) it may be said that in connection with the time in which it was published, efforts may be witnessed on their parts to incorporate studies that are most relevant. Many studies that are being referred to in the chosen article have articulated certain vital aspects related to addictive nature of smoking in addition to its adaptive and functional role. Discussions have also been made with respect to motivators and reinforcers that encourage the uptake as well as continuation of smoking among the Aboriginals. Perspectives of these people with respect to health and their relevance to smoking has been outlined as well in conjunction with reference to components of harm reduction strategies have also been described. Traditional practices of harm minimization have been emphasized throughout the discussion. However, the most recent advancements in relation to smoking cessation and reduction by utilizing electronic cigarettes have been largely overlooked as depicted through valid studies (McRobbie et al. 2012, Polosa et al. 2011). The global effects of smoking as well as quitting or levying of taxes on smoking have also not been taken into consideration, while other studies have highlighted this aspect for better understanding the harm minimization issue in smoking (Jha and Peto 2014). No studies that have been published in languages other than English has been included. Moreover, there is no clear indication as to which databases were explored for procuring the most suitable articles that further delineates the reliability of the findings expressed in course of the original article. uthors Ober and Roche in course of their review did little to assess the quality of the included studies. It is not evident in the proceedings of the article that rigor of the identified studies were well evaluated making it difficult to rely on the facts and information stated in consequence to these findings. More actions could have been undertaken by the authors to understand the rigor of the studies referred to, thereby improving the quality of information that is being provided because of systematic reviewing of the articles. The nature of the study design that is whether they are retrospective or randomized control trial or cohort study might have provided a clearer insight onto the topic. A much-generalized approach has been sought in elucidating the harm reduction strategies for smoking in the Indigenous cohorts. Elements that are integral to define the harm reduction strategies has been mentioned without elaborating the implications for such propositions. Poor health outcome s due to smoking and perceptions surrounding this behavior have been taken into account alongside understanding about the adaptive nature of smoking. Recent studies concerning the disease burden because of exposure to second-hand smoke has also been explored through retrospective analysis whereby it has been emphasized that extension of public health strategies in coalition with clinical interventions might offer effective resolutions to combat ill effects of passive smoking (berg et al. 2011). Harm reduction is not a one-dimensional approach, instead calls for multidisciplinary interventions to tackle cigarette cravings, subsequent withdrawal symptoms that has been confirmed through recent investigations. Management of these crucial issues with respect to smoking has suggested on using exercise that normally works through stress reduction or neurobiological mechanisms (Taylor, Ussher and Faulkner 2007). Consideration of rigor of studies would have accentuated the feasibility of fin dings as represented in the article. In the article by Ober and Roche (1997), mention has been made with respect to other articles that have offered insight into the topic succinctly. Combination of the results of the review has been done to represent distinctive themes in connection with the topic suitable for analysis in consecutive fashion. The findings as stated across diverse studies have been presented haphazardly instead of doing so in a systematic and well-organized manner that further devalued the chances of incorporating the findings as valid and reliable ones. Clumsy representation of the study findings have decreased the clarity of the research topic and decreased the reliability of the work. On the contrary, it has been represented in other systematic review study that a specific correlation between two interacting variables suggests the possible relation among the two. A study was conducted to evaluate the association between self-reported smoking status and smoking status represented through measures of c otinine in biological fluids. A definite search strategy was invested in order to retrieve the most relevant studies that met the inclusion criteria. Examination of the association between the variables was noted through such systematic review (Gorber et al. 2009). However, no such efforts was noted in case of the given article. The rationale behind combining the results of various articles hence cannot be justified properly as the results depicted in those articles were not properly interpreted or analyzed. Correct analysis of such findings would have generated better outcomes in terms of systematic representation of the study findings. The overall results of the review has brought to the forefront certain central themes that reiterates the need to focus more on the smoking issue among the Aboriginal Australians. The study represented that until date little attention has been given to the issue of harm reduction strategies in relation to smoking. Owing to the greater propensity of occurrence of smoking among the Indigenous Australians in addition to harboring negative health effects, harm reduction approaches may have positive utilities. This group of Aboriginal Australians may be benefited through following of the recommendations of harm reduction strategies. The study outcomes have been depicted very vaguely without any statistical tools employment to discuss the findings. The method utilized in outlining the pivotal ideas as emerged through thematic analysis of the topic has not been accurately demonstrated that further added to deter the reliability with respect to study findings. The bottom line representation of the results is rather haphazard and sketchy instead of being concrete and conclusive. No numerical representation of data was noted that reduced the feasibility and usage of the data retrieved. The expression of results did not go through any sort of rigorous statistical analysis that decreased the potential of the study to a large extent. Lack of statistical interpretation caused to lessen the gravity of the study findings significantly. Relevant findings in literature have argued in favor of proposition of rational public policy in an effort to cause tobacco harm reduction through appropriate risk analysis and subsequent recommendations (Sweanor, Alcabes and Drucker 2007). Analysis of the results in the chosen article authored by Ober and Roche (1997), suggests that there is a lack of precision in representing the study findings. The article did not utilize any statistical tool because of which no confidence intervals have been used in the study outcomes. Therefore, the results depict that type of data being qualitative in nature there lie less scope of putting it into the radar of statistical evaluation. Hence, lack of precision in the result interpretation is suggestive of the dearth of performing statistical computations with the available data as the nature of data is entirely qualitative. On the other hand, it has been depicted through appropriate studies that cohort study may essentially incorporate confidence intervals in their study design while doing the statistical operations so that the causative factors may be adequately identified. Follow up studies with suitable cohort respondents attempted to investigate the parameters related to quit at tempts, motivation to quit, smoking status, weight and weight concern, nicotine cue, withdrawal symptoms, health-related factors in addition to smoking cessation aids. Findings suggested that in a model of cessation, motivation plays a crucial role to foster quit attempt while plays lesser role in cases of relapse (Zhou et al. 2009). Hence, lesser precision in terms of the study findings may be largely attributed to the study design and lack of rigorous statistical application. Deeper retrospection into study findings reveals that the study outcomes is applicable to only the Aboriginal Australian community only. The entire study has been undertaken with respect to contextual analysis of the Indigenous cohorts of Australia. The measures and strategies that have been suggested for mitigation of problems are only concerned with this vulnerable population. The findings are not generalizable to other populations thereby restricting its application to other Indigenous cohort population. Across the globe, initiatives have been streamlined to remedy the smoking menace through improvisation and implementation of harm reduction strategies. Studies have highlighted on incorporation of suitable strategies that may be unanimously accepted and followed in the form of policy to drive optimal benefits in mitigating smoking related adverse health impacts for the concerned population. In this connection, smokeless tobacco has been suggested as a harm reduction measure to be incorporated within a policy framework (Gartner et al. 2007). Further, in another study efforts are evident to regulate nicotine product by means of prudent application of harm reduction measures to curb the threatening problems of tobacco smoking (Britton and Edwards 2008). Therefore, considering the plethora of opportunities that rest with respect to expanding the results into the local population, cautions must be undertaken to gauge the applicability of similar measures in the context of other similar population in diverse situational context. The differences in characterizing the harm reduction measures across the population need to be taken into consideration while applying the results to other population in different context. he article by Ober and Roche (1997) has paid considerable attention to address certain outcome measures. Both the addictive as well as adaptive nature of smoking apart from its functional role has been mentioned. Both the motivators and reinforcers responsible for the uptake and continuation of smoking by Aboriginal people have been considered for discussion. As opposed to the cessation strategies that are part of the traditional approaches, the utility of the harm reduction measures as tools of ameliorating smoking have also been part of the discussion of the chosen article. The outcomes have been discussed under various themes where focus was essentially laid upon smoking among Aboriginal health workers with reference to prevalence rates and perceptions about the effects of smoking. The feasibility of the adoption of the harm reduction strategies are also analyzed through suitable references to various relevant articles that corroborated with the study outcomes. The appropriateness of the strategies may be understood in the light of other relevant article that threw light in similar issue. Recent investigations have also attended to the potential of reducing harm because of tobacco smoking. In order to improve public health, regulated and safer nicotine alternatives have gained prominence in todays world that has the capacity of exerting discernible impacts through use of potential alternatives like that of electronic cigarettes and others (Fagerstrm and Bridgman 2014). In the chosen article, mainly the behavioral aspect related to smoking and harm reduction strategy has been highlighted in contrast to the traditional abstinence program. Information related to other aspects such as that concerning the alternatives available to mitigate smoking menace has been overlooked grossly. The results of the study findings of the article have focused on resorting to harm reduction strategies rather than traditional approaches which mostly comprised of conforming to abstinence programs. It has been further mentioned in the article that abatement of adverse health outcomes due to smoking may be facilitated through recruitment of suitable strategies that aimed to mitigate the smoking issue to a considerable extent. For the Aboriginal community in Australia, adoption of harm reduction approaches might be an effective way of combating the adverse outcomes that may be effectively used in the community group context. Application of a wider flexible array of approaches may further contribute to account for harm reduction in the concerned community. With the passage of time, novel approaches and initiatives have come up that direct to lessen the impact of smoking through adoption of suitable harm reduction strategies. Among the initiatives that are in vogue, electronic cigarett es have garnered more attention as choicest tobacco harm reduction product (Bergen, Nissen and Phillips 2009). The analysis of profile users of e-cigarettes alongside its utilization, satisfaction and perceived efficacy has been undertaken to perceive the issue of smoking on a broader spectrum (Etter and Bullen 2011). Therefore, judging the relative importance of benefits associated with harm reduction strategies in contrast to the cost incurred and harm it may be said that it may be useful if the harm reduction strategies are put in force appropriately. Based on the knowledge and information gained by critically appraising the article and undertaking short literature review, it may be said that incorporation of the most relevant strategies might be beneficial in tackling the smoking menace among the Indigenous cohorts. In order to account for harm minimization in case of tobacco smoking, prudent and pragmatic approaches must be directed to drive positive outcomes. Traditional approaches for harm minimization must be replaced by novel and effective methods that will result in generation of more optimal results. As per evidences provided through recent investigations, electronic cigarettes have garnered much attention in curbing harm due to smoking of tobacco that may be considered for further exploration as a suitable alternative. Hence, funding should be given to interventions that aim to streamline initiatives for reducing harms linked with smoking cigarettes that contain tobacco. References Bergen, P., Nissen, C. and Phillips, C.V., 2009. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) as potential tobacco harm reduction products: Results of an online survey of e-cigarette users Karyn Heavner James Dunworth. Britton, J. and Edwards, R., 2008. Tobacco smoking, harm reduction, and nicotine product regulation.The Lancet,371(9610), p.441. Etter, J.F. and Bullen, C., 2011. Electronic cigarette: users profile, utilization, satisfaction and perceived efficacy.Addiction,106(11), pp.2017-2028. Fagerstrm, K.O. and Bridgman, K., 2014. Tobacco harm reduction: the need for new products that can compete with cigarettes.Addictive behaviors,39(3), pp.507-511. Gartner, C.E., Hall, W.D., Chapman, S. and Freeman, B., 2007. Should the health community promote smokeless tobacco (snus) as a harm reduction measure?.PLoS Medicine,4(7), p.e185. Gorber, S.C., Schofield-Hurwitz, S., Hardt, J., Levasseur, G. and Tremblay, M., 2009. The accuracy of self-reported smoking: a systematic review of the relationship between self-reported and cotinine-assessed smoking status.Nicotine tobacco research,11(1), pp.12-24. Jha, P. and Peto, R., 2014. Global effects of smoking, of quitting, and of taxing tobacco.New England Journal of Medicine,370(1), pp.60-68. McRobbie, H., Bullen, C., Hartmann-Boyce, J. and Hajek, P., 2012. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation and reduction.Cochrane Database Syst. Rev,12. Ober, C. and Roche, A.M., 1997. Rethinking smoking among Aboriginal Australians: the harm minimisation-abstinence conundrum.Health Promotion Journal of Australia: Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals,7(2), p.128. berg, M., Jaakkola, M.S., Woodward, A., Peruga, A. and Prss-Ustn, A., 2011. Worldwide burden of disease from exposure to second-hand smoke: a retrospective analysis of data from 192 countries.The Lancet,377(9760), pp.139-146. Polosa, R., Caponnetto, P., Morjaria, J.B., Papale, G., Campagna, D. and Russo, C., 2011. Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e-Cigarette) on smoking reduction and cessation: a prospective 6-month pilot study.BMC public health,11(1), p.786. Sweanor, D., Alcabes, P. and Drucker, E., 2007. Tobacco harm reduction: how rational public policy could transform a pandemic. Taylor, A.H., Ussher, M.H. and Faulkner, G., 2007. The acute effects of exercise on cigarette cravings, withdrawal symptoms, affect and smoking behaviour: a systematic review.Addiction,102(4), pp.534-543. Zhou, X., Nonnemaker, J., Sherrill, B., Gilsenan, A.W., Coste, F. and West, R., 2009. Attempts to quit smoking and relapse: factors associated with success or failure from the ATTEMPT cohort study.Addictive behaviors,34(4), pp.365-373

Friday, April 10, 2020

Consumer confidence index

The consumer confidence index has fluctuated in the past months. It increased sharply in the month of February to an index of 71.6.The index then fell moderately in the month of March to an index of 70.2 due to consumer been less optimistic about the short-term outlook that did not appear favourable to them. The consumer confidence index is currently favourable to the economy as it is above average.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Consumer confidence index specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consumer confidence index is an important indicator of the economy because consumers account for the greatest portion of the gross domestic product. The consumer confidence index is an important data for the government, manufacturers, retailers and banks for their decision-making processes. A high or a rising consumer confidence index indicates a stronger consumer purchasing power, thus manufacturer will have to increase their production to meet demand. A rise in the consumer confidence index affects the economy as consumers will be more willing to spend and invest their money, this will force manufacturers to increase their production to meet the consumer demand. Manufacturers will be forced to source for loans from banks to finance their increased production. This increased production will lead to creation of job opportunities. Lastly, with the increased production, job opportunities and increased consumption the government will increase its revenue collection. The increased revenue collection by the government will be invested in the development of infrastructures like roads, schools and hospitals. A positive change in the consumer confidence index is likely to stimulate economic growth, as there will be increased consumption, increased manufacturing, increased employment and increased government revenue. On the other hand, a decline in the consumer confidence index indicates consumer having a low purc hasing power. Manufacturers will be forced to cut down their production and labour force because of low demand. The government will collect less revenue because of low production, unemployment of the people and less economic activity. A fall in the consumer confidence index will make the economy stagnant. The expectation of business executives over the past few months has been optimistic about growth prospects. Most business executives are optimistic that the economic condition will improve in the next six months and that they will be in position to hire more employees. Similar optimism is also evident from the business executives in their own industries. The consumer expectation does not match with the business executive`s expectation. The consumer expectation is higher than the business executive’s expectation.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The consumer expectati on and business executive’s expectations do not match because the consumer expectation is the main driver of the business executive expectation. The consumer expectation has to rise first before the business executives expectation follows. As a result, the business will hire more employees in the next few months to prepare themselves for more production. Most businesses will increase their production level in the coming months to meet the consumers demand. Most businesses will start increasing their inventory levels to benefit from the high purchasing power of consumers. Businesses will seek for loans from banks in order to invest in new production equipment that will enable them increase efficiency and production. In conclusion, due to the difference in consumers and business confidence, businesses will prepare themselves to meet the consumer demand and make profit of the high consumer’s purchasing power by producing of more consumer products. This report on Consumer confidence index was written and submitted by user Joyce Y. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, March 9, 2020

Free Essays on Dead Man Walking

Dead Man Walking The movie â€Å"Dead Man Walking† brought up some important questions. Questions concerning moral, hate, love, forgiveness, justice, and reconciliation. As well as if the death penalty is a appropriate and just punishment for a crime. Throughout this film there was a lot of hate. There was so much anger and disposition in all of the characters. Matt Poncelet was a confused and hateful individual. He was so masked with anger that he didn’t even really know what his true feelings were. He thought he was this big, bad, tough individual but he really wasn’t. Inside he was a scared little child. He believed that he was invincible and that no one could touch him. It wasn’t until the end when he was in his cell awaiting his death that he really owned up to what he was and the things that he did. The parents of the two victims were also filled with hate and anger. They hated their children’s killers, but who wouldn’t hate the killers of your kin. They were blinded by their hate. All they wanted was to see the man that killed their children dead. It seems to me that hate was the main cause for all of the problems in the movie. Sometimes people need to just relax and let things happen. Hatred is a disease that kills. Hatred killed the kids, hatred killed Mathew Poncelet, and hatred killed the marriage of the victims parents. Hate makes people on edge, they jump and explode at the slightest thing. Hate in unhealthy, it eats away inside of you and gets to your personality. Hate changes people for the worse. People need to learn how to forgive others for their actions. The parents of the victims didn’t necessarily need to forgive Matt Poncelet but they needed to let it go and have him receive his punishment. They needed to understand that even when he was executed it would not bring back their children. It may make them feel better but it still wont change anything. Everything will still be... Free Essays on Dead Man Walking Free Essays on Dead Man Walking Dead Man Walking The movie â€Å"Dead Man Walking† brought up some important questions. Questions concerning moral, hate, love, forgiveness, justice, and reconciliation. As well as if the death penalty is a appropriate and just punishment for a crime. Throughout this film there was a lot of hate. There was so much anger and disposition in all of the characters. Matt Poncelet was a confused and hateful individual. He was so masked with anger that he didn’t even really know what his true feelings were. He thought he was this big, bad, tough individual but he really wasn’t. Inside he was a scared little child. He believed that he was invincible and that no one could touch him. It wasn’t until the end when he was in his cell awaiting his death that he really owned up to what he was and the things that he did. The parents of the two victims were also filled with hate and anger. They hated their children’s killers, but who wouldn’t hate the killers of your kin. They were blinded by their hate. All they wanted was to see the man that killed their children dead. It seems to me that hate was the main cause for all of the problems in the movie. Sometimes people need to just relax and let things happen. Hatred is a disease that kills. Hatred killed the kids, hatred killed Mathew Poncelet, and hatred killed the marriage of the victims parents. Hate makes people on edge, they jump and explode at the slightest thing. Hate in unhealthy, it eats away inside of you and gets to your personality. Hate changes people for the worse. People need to learn how to forgive others for their actions. The parents of the victims didn’t necessarily need to forgive Matt Poncelet but they needed to let it go and have him receive his punishment. They needed to understand that even when he was executed it would not bring back their children. It may make them feel better but it still wont change anything. Everything will still be...

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Audience analysis memo Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Audience analysis memo - Research Paper Example As such, the website has to be keen to address the needs of even those with no prior knowledge on human health services. This target audience encompasses adults from all cultural, professional and educational backgrounds, regardless of their gender. On the other hand, Wikipedia seems to target scholars, professionals and researchers. It is more in-depth in content and would only appeal to adults with adequate background education on lung cancer, seeking intensive understanding of lung cancer. These could be scholars or professionals in healthcare science, irrespective of their gender or cultural background. In the same way, the websites target different secondary audiences. HHS seems to secondarily appeal to researchers and scholars seeking to get a general overview and introduction to the concept of lung cancer. It gives a guide on the information available to the public on the subject. Wikipedia secondarily targets people from other professions other than healthcare seeking to have general knowledge on the subject. Such persons should have some advanced education to make sense of the information shared. i. Graphical representation: HHS uses warm pictures of fruits and happy people to appeal to the general public. It is perhaps postulated that exhibiting happiness would be more attractive. For Wikipedia, the objective of educating its scholarly audience makes it use real images of lungs which would appeal more to its audience seeking to understand the action of cancer on lungs. The use of charts also provides researchers with a clear understanding of useful statistics on lung cancer. ii. Formality of styles: With HHS targeting a lesser educated audience seeking for basic information on lung cancer, the informal style works effectively. The informality not only involves use of bullet points but also use of simpler phrases in place of technical terminologies. For example,